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Edward Burnett Tylor

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Introduction Edit

Early Life Edit

Professional CareerEdit

In 1861, Tylor published his first book, Anahuac: Or Mexico and the Mexicans Ancient and Modern, that was an account of the Mexican expedition with Christy (Kardiner, A. and Preble, E., 1961). Meanwhile, Tylor never traveled again, but instead joined the Royal Anthropological Society and independently studied primitve societies, publishing Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization in 1865 (Answers, 2009). This book immediately established Tylor as a leading figure in anthropology (Answers, 2009). Following, was his most famous work of all times, Primitive culture (1871). Tylor established a cultural reconstruction which would show a progressive development from primitive to civilized man (Kardiner, A. and Preble, E., 1961). Additionally, that same year, Tylor was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1875, he received the degree of Doctor of Civil Laws from the University of Oxford. He was appointed Keeper of the University Museum in 1883, where he lectured on anthropological subjects (Answers, 2009). Following that, he received the title of first Reader in Anthropology from 1884 - 1895. Afterwards, he published a condensed account of his theories in 1881, in his book Anthropology (Answers, 2009). In 1888, he published, On a Method of Investigating the Development of Institutions, which appeared in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, as the first attempt to use statistical information to substantiate and generate social anthropological theories (Answers, 2009). He was given Professorship in Anthropology in 1896 and retired in1909. In 1903, he received Honorary Felloship at Balliol and was knighted in 1912.

ConclusionEdit

Overall, the works of Edward Burnett Tylor has made much contributions to the field of anthropology. Although, he never gained any formal education, besides the education he received in his early years at Grove House, his works and passion in the field of anthropology had given him the title of founder of modern anthropology and the first anthropology professor at Oxford University. As his primary goal, "to develop a framework in which evolution of culture could be explained and the nature of its orgins understood," (DRS) in the anthropological study, Tylor has gone far and beyond to make it understandable and available to use. Being most famous for his works on Primitive Culture, influenced by Charles Darwin, he "developed a theory of an evolutionary relationship between what he called primitive and modern cultures, stressing the cultural achievements that marked the progression of all humanity from a "savage" to a "civilized" state," according to Britannica Encyclopedia. Thus, reintroducing the term animism into common use, and arguing that it was the first phase in the development of religion. Moreover, his expedition to Mexico was an account of his first book, Anahuac: Or Mexico and the Mexicans Ancient and Modern (1861), which later inspired him to publish more of his greater books such as Researches into the Early History of Mankind and the Development of Civilization (1865), Primitive Culture (1871), Anthropology (1881), and On a Method of Investigating the Development of Institutions (1881) that formulated clearer theories, concepts and ideas. Therefore, anthropology would not be what it is today, without the contribution of the works Edward Burnett Tylor.

PublicationsEdit

  • Anahuac: Or Mexico and the Mexicans Ancient and Modern (1861)
  • Researched into the Early History of Mankind (1865)
  • Primitive Culture: Researches into the development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art and Custom (1871)
  • Anthropology (1881)
  • On a Method of Investigating the Development of Institution Applied to Laws of Marriage and Descent (1888)

TimelineEdit

1871 - Attained the honor of becoming a Fellow of the Royal Society before the age of forty

1875 - Recieved the degree of Doctor of Civil Laws from the University of Oxford

1883 - Appointed Keeper of the University Museum

1884 - Given a Readership in Anthropology

1896 - Given a Professorship in Anthropology

1903 - Received Honorary Felloship at Balliol

1912 - Received a belated knighthood

1917 - Died in Wellington on January 2, 1971

Annotated BibliographyEdit

Ayres, Barbara. 1974 Bride Theft and Raiding for Wives in Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Anthropological Quarterly 47: 238 - 252

This article examined the cross-cultural study on bride theft and raiding for wives. The purpose was to provide a comparative perspective as well as test a number of hypothesis concerning the relationships between bride theft and raiding for wives. Ayres re-examined and applied Tylor's earlier findings that he conducted called "adhesions", between various forms of marriage by capture and certain other institutions, to her study. Tylor's findings was that raidings for wives occurred among matrilocal and patrilocal societies. In the study, they wished to reject Tylor's theory but however it was valid and stated that, "there is no priori reason to assume that changes in social organization could not have such as psychological origin" Anthropological Quarterly 47: 251. This article would be helpful to those who are interested in bride theft and raid wives and are seeking for supporting work.

Lowie, Robert H. 1917 Edward B. Tylor. American Anthropologist 19: 262 -268

Lowie discuss the life history of Edward B. Tylor. He goes into great detail about the work and accomplishments that Tylor had done throughout his life. Such as his publications and the numerous honors given to him. He also talk a little about Tylor's interest in cultural evolution and influence of diffusion in which it was seen in his books. This article helped me in writing more about him and the works that he has done.

Opler, Morris E. 1964 Cause, Process, and Dynamics in the Evolutionism of E. B. Tylor. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 20: 123 - 144

Opler discusses how many scholars, Lowie and Stocking among them have noted Tylor's stress on rationalism, however these scholars have not related Tylor's rationalism to the dynamics of his evolutionism and to his cultural Darwinism. In addition he says that Tylor's theory makes him a philosophical idealist and not a materialist. Although he gave attention to culture materialist, his conception was many sided and complete. This article was helpful in understanding Tylor's theories on the dynamics in evolutionism.

Opler, Morris E. 1968 Tylor's Application of Evolutionary Theory to Public Issues of His Day. Anthropological Quarterly 1: 1 - 8

In this article, Opler reviews an article by J. W. Burrow who compares Tylor to Spencer and Maine arguing that he was "a-political". Burrow implicated that Tylor was naive and ill-informed about political and economic theory. However that did not stop him from expressing opinions on political and economic issues of his days. In addition Opler talk about Tylor's use of the cultural evolutionary doctrine and theory of survivals in defense to individualism and capitalism as a refute to communism and socialism to civilized man. This article could be useful for those who are interested in the application of Tylor's evolutionary theory.

Review: No author. 1889 Dr. Tylor on Marriage Systems and Laws of Descent. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 18: 91 - 92

This article was based on a lecture that Dr. Tylor gave in the Theatre of the Museum at Oxford on the subject of Marriage and Descent applying scientific method. Tylor compiled 360 tribes and nations and classified it as the "method of adhesions". The "method of adhesions" is the make up of patriarchal and matriarchal social systems. This article would be useful when looking at the social systems of patriarchal and matriarchal.

Stocking, George W. Jr. 1963 Matthew Arnold, E. B. Tylor and The Uses of Invention. American Anthropology 65: 783 - 799

Stocking compared both Arnold and Tylor's definition concerning "culture" or "civilization". After describing each of their definition the author says that both of their concept were similar to one another. Except that Tylor's thinking is in the tradition of the French Enlightenment and British empiricism and Arnold on the other hand was in the tradition of English Romanticism and of German transcendental philosophy. This would be useful when comparing Tylor's concept of culture or civilization with another person's concept.

Stocking, George W. Jr. 1971 Animism in Theory and Practice: E. B. Tylor's Unpublished 'Notes on "Spiritualism" '. Man, New Series 1: 88 - 104

This article by Stocking, was an account of the unpublished notes Tylor wrote in his diary on his encounter with "spiritualism". According to Stocking, Tylor had been very much aware of spiritualist movement. It was implicated that his ideas on animism developed in the context of awareness. Stocking argued that "the contrast between his public and private attitudes towards spiritualism" in his diary's last paragraph was "a far cry from the tone of his published opinion" Man, New Series 1:104. This gave an indication that Tylor contradicted himself on his ideas of spiritualism. This article would be helpful in understanding Tylor's views on spiritualism both publically and privately through his diary and published works.

Stringer, Martin D. 1999 Rethinking Animism: Thoughts from the Infancy of Our Discipline. The Journal of The Royal Anthropological Institute 5: 541 - 555

Stringer examines Tylor's work of "Primitive Culture", particularly the aspect that deals with animism. In addition, he discusses several of the critiques of animism, showing that most of them have misread Tylor's original intentions. He also discusses how re-reading Tylor relates to contemporary writing on animism and modern religions. This article was relevant to me because the concept of animism was widely used in Tylor's work, especially "Primitive Culture". It gave the perspective and criticism of another scholar who re-examined the works of Tylor.

Stuart-Glennie, J. S. 1892 Queries as to Dr. Tylor's Views on Animism. Folklore 3: 289 - 307

Stuart-Glennie repsonds in his article to the position that Dr. Tylor holds on his views and theories associated with animism. He compiled seven queries arguing against Dr. Tylor's views in retrospect to animism. He spends the rest of the article refuting Dr. Tylor's points of views on animism in his seven queries. This article would be helpful in understanding Tylor's views on animism but also a differenct perspective of the views of another person who has critique Tylor's work.

Tylor, Edward B. 1880 Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of Games. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Irealand 9: 23 - 30

Tylor writes about the remarks he received on the geographical distribution of games. He argued that the geographical distribution of games came with the spread of civilization. He proceed into great detail on the history and geography of the sport kite flying among children. In addition to "cat's cradle" of the various types of figures that it produces. Furthermore the English draughts consisting of a board with 238 squares 14 x 17 played by moving white and black pebbles from square to square. Tylor recieved remarks from Mr. Hyde Clarke, Mr. Moncure Conway and Mr. Hilton price all of who were impressed with his knowledge. This article would be helpful to those who were interested in learning about the history of geographical distribution games and wish to recieve more information about it.
Ayres, Barbara. 1974 Bride Theft and Raiding for Wives in Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Anthropological Quarterly 47: 238 - 252

This article examined the cross-cultural study on bride theft and raiding for wives. The purpose was to provide a comparative perspective as well as test a number of hypothesis concerning the relationships between bride theft and raiding for wives. Ayres re-examined and applied Tylor's earlier findings that he conducted called "adhesions", between various forms of marriage by capture and certain other institutions, to her study. Tylor's findings was that raidings for wives occurred among matrilocal and patrilocal societies. In the study, they wished to reject Tylor's theory but however it was valid and stated that, "there is no priori reason to assume that changes in social organization could not have such as psychological origin" Anthropological Quarterly 47: 251. This article would be helpful to those who are interested in bride theft and raid wives and are seeking for supporting work.

Lowie, Robert H. 1917 Edward B. Tylor. American Anthropologist 19: 262 -268

Lowie discuss the life history of Edward B. Tylor. He goes into great detail about the work and accomplishments that Tylor had done throughout his life. Such as his publications and the numerous honors given to him. He also talk a little about Tylor's interest in cultural evolution and influence of diffusion in which it was seen in his books. This article helped me in writing more about him and the works that he has done.

Opler, Morris E. 1964 Cause, Process, and Dynamics in the Evolutionism of E. B. Tylor. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 20: 123 - 144

Opler discusses how many scholars, Lowie and Stocking among them have noted Tylor's stress on rationalism, however these scholars have not related Tylor's rationalism to the dynamics of his evolutionism and to his cultural Darwinism. In addition he says that Tylor's theory makes him a philosophical idealist and not a materialist. Although he gave attention to culture materialist, his conception was many sided and complete. This article was helpful in understanding Tylor's theories on the dynamics in evolutionism.

Opler, Morris E. 1968 Tylor's Application of Evolutionary Theory to Public Issues of His Day. Anthropological Quarterly 1: 1 - 8

In this article, Opler reviews an article by J. W. Burrow who compares Tylor to Spencer and Maine arguing that he was "a-political". Burrow implicated that Tylor was naive and ill-informed about political and economic theory. However that did not stop him from expressing opinions on political and economic issues of his days. In addition Opler talk about Tylor's use of the cultural evolutionary doctrine and theory of survivals in defense to individualism and capitalism as a refute to communism and socialism to civilized man. This article could be useful for those who are interested in the application of Tylor's evolutionary theory.

Review: No author. 1889 Dr. Tylor on Marriage Systems and Laws of Descent. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 18: 91 - 92

This article was based on a lecture that Dr. Tylor gave in the Theatre of the Museum at Oxford on the subject of Marriage and Descent applying scientific method. Tylor compiled 360 tribes and nations and classified it as the "method of adhesions". The "method of adhesions" is the make up of patriarchal and matriarchal social systems. This article would be useful when looking at the social systems of patriarchal and matriarchal.

Stocking, George W. Jr. 1963 Matthew Arnold, E. B. Tylor and The Uses of Invention. American Anthropology 65: 783 - 799

Stocking compared both Arnold and Tylor's definition concerning "culture" or "civilization". After describing each of their definition the author says that both of their concept were similar to one another. Except that Tylor's thinking is in the tradition of the French Enlightenment and British empiricism and Arnold on the other hand was in the tradition of English Romanticism and of German transcendental philosophy. This would be useful when comparing Tylor's concept of culture or civilization with another person's concept.

Stocking, George W. Jr. 1971 Animism in Theory and Practice: E. B. Tylor's Unpublished 'Notes on "Spiritualism" '. Man, New Series 1: 88 - 104

This article by Stocking, was an account of the unpublished notes Tylor wrote in his diary on his encounter with "spiritualism". According to Stocking, Tylor had been very much aware of spiritualist movement. It was implicated that his ideas on animism developed in the context of awareness. Stocking argued that "the contrast between his public and private attitudes towards spiritualism" in his diary's last paragraph was "a far cry from the tone of his published opinion" Man, New Series 1:104. This gave an indication that Tylor contradicted himself on his ideas of spiritualism. This article would be helpful in understanding Tylor's views on spiritualism both publically and privately through his diary and published works.

Stringer, Martin D. 1999 Rethinking Animism: Thoughts from the Infancy of Our Discipline. The Journal of The Royal Anthropological Institute 5: 541 - 555

Stringer examines Tylor's work of "Primitive Culture", particularly the aspect that deals with animism. In addition, he discusses several of the critiques of animism, showing that most of them have misread Tylor's original intentions. He also discusses how re-reading Tylor relates to contemporary writing on animism and modern religions. This article was relevant to me because the concept of animism was widely used in Tylor's work, especially "Primitive Culture". It gave the perspective and criticism of another scholar who re-examined the works of Tylor.

Stuart-Glennie, J. S. 1892 Queries as to Dr. Tylor's Views on Animism. Folklore 3: 289 - 307

Stuart-Glennie repsonds in his article to the position that Dr. Tylor holds on his views and theories associated with animism. He compiled seven queries arguing against Dr. Tylor's views in retrospect to animism. He spends the rest of the article refuting Dr. Tylor's points of views on animism in his seven queries. This article would be helpful in understanding Tylor's views on animism but also a differenct perspective of the views of another person who has critique Tylor's work.

Tylor, Edward B. 1880 Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of Games. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Irealand 9: 23 - 30

Tylor writes about the remarks he received on the geographical distribution of games. He argued that the geographical distribution of games came with the spread of civilization. He proceed into great detail on the history and geography of the sport kite flying among children. In addition to "cat's cradle" of the various types of figures that it produces. Furthermore the English draughts consisting of a board with 238 squares 14 x 17 played by moving white and black pebbles from square to square. Tylor recieved remarks from Mr. Hyde Clarke, Mr. Moncure Conway and Mr. Hilton price all of who were impressed with his knowledge. This article would be helpful to those who were interested in learning about the history of geographical distribution games and wish to recieve more information about it.
Ayres, Barbara. 1974 Bride Theft and Raiding for Wives in Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Anthropological Quarterly 47: 238 - 252

This article examined the cross-cultural study on bride theft and raiding for wives. The purpose was to provide a comparative perspective as well as test a number of hypothesis concerning the relationships between bride theft and raiding for wives. Ayres re-examined and applied Tylor's earlier findings that he conducted called "adhesions", between various forms of marriage by capture and certain other institutions, to her study. Tylor's findings was that raidings for wives occurred among matrilocal and patrilocal societies. In the study, they wished to reject Tylor's theory but however it was valid and stated that, "there is no priori reason to assume that changes in social organization could not have such as psychological origin" Anthropological Quarterly 47: 251. This article would be helpful to those who are interested in bride theft and raid wives and are seeking for supporting work.

Lowie, Robert H. 1917 Edward B. Tylor. American Anthropologist 19: 262 -268

Lowie discuss the life history of Edward B. Tylor. He goes into great detail about the work and accomplishments that Tylor had done throughout his life. Such as his publications and the numerous honors given to him. He also talk a little about Tylor's interest in cultural evolution and influence of diffusion in which it was seen in his books. This article helped me in writing more about him and the works that he has done.

Opler, Morris E. 1964 Cause, Process, and Dynamics in the Evolutionism of E. B. Tylor. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 20: 123 - 144

Opler discusses how many scholars, Lowie and Stocking among them have noted Tylor's stress on rationalism, however these scholars have not related Tylor's rationalism to the dynamics of his evolutionism and to his cultural Darwinism. In addition he says that Tylor's theory makes him a philosophical idealist and not a materialist. Although he gave attention to culture materialist, his conception was many sided and complete. This article was helpful in understanding Tylor's theories on the dynamics in evolutionism.

Opler, Morris E. 1968 Tylor's Application of Evolutionary Theory to Public Issues of His Day. Anthropological Quarterly 1: 1 - 8

In this article, Opler reviews an article by J. W. Burrow who compares Tylor to Spencer and Maine arguing that he was "a-political". Burrow implicated that Tylor was naive and ill-informed about political and economic theory. However that did not stop him from expressing opinions on political and economic issues of his days. In addition Opler talk about Tylor's use of the cultural evolutionary doctrine and theory of survivals in defense to individualism and capitalism as a refute to communism and socialism to civilized man. This article could be useful for those who are interested in the application of Tylor's evolutionary theory.

Review: No author. 1889 Dr. Tylor on Marriage Systems and Laws of Descent. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 18: 91 - 92

This article was based on a lecture that Dr. Tylor gave in the Theatre of the Museum at Oxford on the subject of Marriage and Descent applying scientific method. Tylor compiled 360 tribes and nations and classified it as the "method of adhesions". The "method of adhesions" is the make up of patriarchal and matriarchal social systems. This article would be useful when looking at the social systems of patriarchal and matriarchal.

Stocking, George W. Jr. 1963 Matthew Arnold, E. B. Tylor and The Uses of Invention. American Anthropology 65: 783 - 799

Stocking compared both Arnold and Tylor's definition concerning "culture" or "civilization". After describing each of their definition the author says that both of their concept were similar to one another. Except that Tylor's thinking is in the tradition of the French Enlightenment and British empiricism and Arnold on the other hand was in the tradition of English Romanticism and of German transcendental philosophy. This would be useful when comparing Tylor's concept of culture or civilization with another person's concept.

Stocking, George W. Jr. 1971 Animism in Theory and Practice: E. B. Tylor's Unpublished 'Notes on "Spiritualism" '. Man, New Series 1: 88 - 104

This article by Stocking, was an account of the unpublished notes Tylor wrote in his diary on his encounter with "spiritualism". According to Stocking, Tylor had been very much aware of spiritualist movement. It was implicated that his ideas on animism developed in the context of awareness. Stocking argued that "the contrast between his public and private attitudes towards spiritualism" in his diary's last paragraph was "a far cry from the tone of his published opinion" Man, New Series 1:104. This gave an indication that Tylor contradicted himself on his ideas of spiritualism. This article would be helpful in understanding Tylor's views on spiritualism both publically and privately through his diary and published works.

Stringer, Martin D. 1999 Rethinking Animism: Thoughts from the Infancy of Our Discipline. The Journal of The Royal Anthropological Institute 5: 541 - 555

Stringer examines Tylor's work of "Primitive Culture", particularly the aspect that deals with animism. In addition, he discusses several of the critiques of animism, showing that most of them have misread Tylor's original intentions. He also discusses how re-reading Tylor relates to contemporary writing on animism and modern religions. This article was relevant to me because the concept of animism was widely used in Tylor's work, especially "Primitive Culture". It gave the perspective and criticism of another scholar who re-examined the works of Tylor.

Stuart-Glennie, J. S. 1892 Queries as to Dr. Tylor's Views on Animism. Folklore 3: 289 - 307

Stuart-Glennie repsonds in his article to the position that Dr. Tylor holds on his views and theories associated with animism. He compiled seven queries arguing against Dr. Tylor's views in retrospect to animism. He spends the rest of the article refuting Dr. Tylor's points of views on animism in his seven queries. This article would be helpful in understanding Tylor's views on animism but also a differenct perspective of the views of another person who has critique Tylor's work.

Tylor, Edward B. 1880 Remarks on the Geographical Distribution of Games. The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Irealand 9: 23 - 30

Tylor writes about the remarks he received on the geographical distribution of games. He argued that the geographical distribution of games came with the spread of civilization. He proceed into great detail on the history and geography of the sport kite flying among children. In addition to "cat's cradle" of the various types of figures that it produces. Furthermore the English draughts consisting of a board with 238 squares 14 x 17 played by moving white and black pebbles from square to square. Tylor recieved remarks from Mr. Hyde Clarke, Mr. Moncure Conway and Mr. Hilton price all of who were impressed with his knowledge. This article would be helpful to those who were interested in learning about the history of geographical distribution games and wish to recieve more information about it.

References Edit

Answers.com - Online Dictionary, Encyclopedia and much more.. (n.d.). Retrieved . , , from http://www.answers.com/topic/edward-burnett-tylor

Department of Religious Studies.. (n.d.). Retrieved . , , from http://www.as.ua.edu/rel/aboutrelbiotylor.html

Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia.. (n.d.). Retrieved . , , from http://Britannica.com

Kardiner, A., & Preble, E. (1961). Cleveland, Ohio: The World Publishing Company.

Lowie, R. H. (1917). Edward B. Tylor. , (2), 262-268.

Minnesota State University, Mankato.. (n.d.). Retrieved . , , from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/information/biography/pqrst/tylor_edward.html

Thesing, W. B. (1987). Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research.

Tylor, E. B. (1958). New York, NY: Harper & Row, Publishers, Incorporated.

Tylor, E. B. (1958). New York, NY: Harpers & Brothers

Tylor, E. B. (1965). Toronto, Canada: The University of Michigan Press.

Tylor, E. B. (1970). New York, NY: Bergman Publishers.

Tylor, E. B. (1878). New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.. (n.d.). Retrieved . , , from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Burnett_Tylor

World of Sociology Biography.. (n.d.). Retrieved . , , from http://www.bookrags.com/biography/edward-burnett-tylor-sir-soc/

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